The estimated PV system installation capacity in 2016 was ~70GW worldwide , as shown in Fig. 1. In fact, the production volume in 2015 was around 200 times that in 2000, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of over 40%. It has recently been noted that as the PV industry matures, the mindset is changing from $/W to $/kWh. While $/W is still a major driving force, the significance of other factors that influence the cost of energy must also be considered. In this regard, PV development is entering the era of $/kWh-oriented optimization.