Advances in nanofabrication for enhancing the efficiency of optical devices, such as solar cells and photo-detectors, via nanostructuring have attracted a great deal of interest. A photoconversion strategy employing nanorods (NRs) has emerged as a powerful way of overcoming the limitations of planar wafer-based or thin-film solar cells. But there is also a broad spectrum of challenges to be tackled when it comes to putting into practice cost-effective NR solar cell concepts. ROD-SOL is a 10-partner, ‘nanotechnology for energy’ project with end-users, equipment manufacturers and institutes from six countries forming the consortium. The aim of the project is to provide the photovoltaic market with a highly efficient (> 10%), potentially low-cost, thin-film solar cell concept on glass, based on silicon nanorods. This paper presents the project’s achievements and discusses what the future might hold for nanotech-based solar energy production.