The complexity of LID, LeTID and HID

Photovoltaic (PV) modules are a general product of the PV industry. PV modules need to be used outdoors. The outdoor reliability of these products is an important quality indicator and light induced degradation (LID) is one of the most intensively discussed reliability indicators.

Beyond boron-oxygen-deactivation: industrial feasible LID-free p-type Czochralski silicon

Today’s industry standard B-doped monocrystalline silicon still suffers from light-induced degradation of the carrier lifetime. Illumination at elevated temperature leads to a so-called regeneration, i.e. a recovery of the carrier lifetime as well as the solar cell efficiency. However, even though the carrier lifetime on test wafers increases from about 1 ms after processing to 3 ms after regeneration, the corresponding PERC+ cell efficiencies in both states are identical. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. Additionally, we evaluate B-doped Czochralski silicon wafers with an ultra-low oxygen content of 2.6 ppma as well as industrial Ga-doped wafers. Both wafer materials are completely LID-free in lifetime measurements and PERC+ cell efficiencies and enable up to 0.4%abs higher efficiencies than present industry-typical boron-doped wafers.

Is LeTID degradation in PERC cells another degradation crisis even worse than PID?

When we visit conferences and industrial players, we are very often surprised at how many responsible scientists for PERC production have never heard about the severe degradation effects that PERC devices can show – in particular when talking about LeTID (Light and elevated Temperature Induced Degradation) alias Carrier Induced Degradation (CID).

Light-induced degradation newly addressed – predicting long-term yield loss

Module degradation | Light-induced degradation has long been recognised for its negative effects on the performance of crystalline silicon solar cells. Researchers from Fraunhofer CSP explain how with the advent of advanced materials and cell technologies such as PERC, new tests and standards are required to minimise the impact of the phenomenon on plant reliability.

Technical progress in high-efficiency solar cells and modules

This paper focuses on the technical progress of high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells and modules, specifically with regard to passivated emitter and rear cell (PERC) processes, module description and light induced degradation (LID) data. Through appropriate optimizations of the solar cell and module processes, the cell efficiency achieved in mass production is 21.3%, with module power exceeding 300W. To solve the LID problem, hydrogenation technology developed by UNSW is used, bringing the cell LID rate down to below 1%.