By Max Mittag, Max Mittag studied industrial engineering and management at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. In 2010 he completed his diploma thesis at Fraunhofer ISE and joined the department for photovoltaic modules. His current work includes the cell-to-module efficiency analysis and the development new photovoltaic module concepts.; Matthieu Ebert, Matthieu Ebert holds a ma s t er de g r e e i n r e n ewa b l e en e r g y s y s t ems f rom t h e University of Applied Science, Berlin. Before joining Fraunhofer ISE in 2011 he completed research stays at the Fraunhofer CSE in Boston and at the Australian National University in Canberra. Since 2011 he has been undertaking research on PV module technology. Since 2015 he has led the module efficiency and new concepts team. His main areas of research are module efficiency and CTM analysis, building-integrated PV and PV for automotive applications.
Understanding power losses in technical systems is vital to improve products in every industry and photovoltaic modules present no exception. Losses in solar modules are caused by optical and electrical effects or are determined by simple module geometry through inactive areas.