The complexity of LID, LeTID and HID

By Meng Xiajie, LONGi Solar

Photovoltaic (PV) modules are a general product of the PV industry. PV modules need to be used outdoors. The outdoor reliability of these products is an important quality indicator and light induced degradation (LID) is one of the most intensively discussed reliability indicators.

Beyond boron-oxygen-deactivation: industrial feasible LID-free p-type Czochralski silicon

By Rui Zhou, LONGi Clean Energy Technology Co., Ltd.,; Bianca Lim, Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH); Agnes Merkle, Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH); Robby Peibst, Institute of Electronic Materials and Devices, Leibniz Universität; Thorsten Dullweber, Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH); Yichun Wang, LONGi Clean Energy Technology Co., Ltd.,

Today’s industry standard B-doped monocrystalline silicon still suffers from light-induced degradation of the carrier lifetime. Illumination at elevated temperature leads to a so-called regeneration, i.e. a recovery of the carrier lifetime as well as the solar cell efficiency. However, even though the carrier lifetime on test wafers increases from about 1 ms after processing to 3 ms after regeneration, the corresponding PERC+ cell efficiencies in both states are identical. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy. Additionally, we evaluate B-doped Czochralski silicon wafers with an ultra-low oxygen content of 2.6 ppma as well as industrial Ga-doped wafers. Both wafer materials are completely LID-free in lifetime measurements and PERC+ cell efficiencies and enable up to 0.4%abs higher efficiencies than present industry-typical boron-doped wafers.

Global Energy Storage Opportunity 2018

This second annual edition of the Global Energy Storage Opportunity looks at regional markets, applications and technologies as things stand in 2018. What are the business models already in use by leading players and what will the future hold? What regulatory frameworks are working best for enabling this amazing advanced technology and what do the industry, experts and stakeholders want to see going forward? This comprehensive report covers territories including the US and Canada, Japan and China, Europe including Scandinavia and the UK, Africa’s off-grid sector, sustainable transport with Hyperloop in Dubai and much, much more. It was Energy-Storage.News most downloaded content last year and this year’s report is even better!

The Global Energy Storage Opportunity

This special supplement on energy storage looks at a global market which has already come a long way and shows no sign of looking back. From residential to grid-scale, to microgrids and vehicle-to-grid, from safety to finance, we’ve condensed some of the biggest topics and themes into a handy collection which we hope will help illuminate and inform you all. Energy storage is growing into a cornerstone of the grid (and is arguably even more important off-grid); a vital component of decentralised, decarbonised and even digitalised future energy systems. Yet so many misconceptions and concerns remain and there is still so much work to be done in helping stakeholders gain a better understanding of what batteries – and other forms of energy storage – can do.