DKEM has developed ‘DK92’ metallization paste to solve different passivation technology challenges



DK Electronic Materials Inc. (DKEM) has launched a new generation of front-side metallization paste. ‘DK92’ series front-side metallization pastes have been developed to be compatible with different passivation technologies and processes for PERC solar cells, including ALD (spatial ALD, and time-based dual-side passivated ALD), PECVD (remote plasma and direct plasma) as well as other non-AlOx passivation solutions to boost the diversified PERC technologies and to further lower the LCOE. 


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The consistency of performance and productivity of PERC technology is not expected to be achieved with different passivation technologies such as ALD (spatial ALD, and time-based dual-side passivated ALD), PECVD (remote plasma and direct plasma) as well as other non-AlOx passivation solutions because of the intrinsic limitation of conventional front-side silver paste. One of the challenges for time-based dual-side passivated ALD technology is the need to etch the SiNx/AlOx stacked layer to form a good Ohmic contact with the emitter due to the mismatch between front-side silver paste and dual-side passivated AlOx and the significant increase of series resistance and ratio of EL of cells and modules.


Through continuous collaboration with industry leading PERC multi/mono cell makers, DKEM has launched a new generation metallization paste, which could reduce firing temperature by 10-15 degree C, compared to DKEM's previous DK91B paste, which is approximately 20-30 degree C lower than industry benchmark conditions for PERC cells. The DK92 series is claimed to demonstrate a superior process window and compatibility with different contact requirements and diversified passivation technologies and processes. Specifically for dual-side passivated ALD, a breakthrough of front-side silver paste has been achieved with improved Ohmic contact and about 2mV U c gain from low temperature firing. Furthermore, DK92 series could solve the wrap-around deposition issue of AlOx on the front-side of PERC cells and rear-side of N-PERT cells if the passivation process is not fully optimized.


Metallization of PERC cells including ALD (spatial ALD, and time-based dual-side passivated ALD), PECVD (remote plasma and direct plasma) as well as other non-AlOx passivation solutions.


DK92A front-side silver paste for ‘Black Silicon’ multicrystalline PERC cells provides more than 1 N/mm adhesion enhancement on Black Silicon textured wafers with superior low-temperature firing property (-20-30oC over industry PERC benchmark) and a contact window enlarged to >120 Ohm/sq. The paste can achieve >20.20% efficiency for Black Silicon PERC multicrystalline cells. A special version has been developed for wrap-around deposited and dual-sided passivated AlOx for front-side PERC cells. Single print, dual print and knuckle-free screen versions of the paste are also available. DK92A is compatible with additive and Black Silicon textured diamond wire wafers with >19.20% efficiency over standard BSF cells. DK92B front-side silver paste for PERC mono cells provides an innovative glass frits that is claimed to significantly decreased the EL ratio from non-uniformity of firing temperature and diffusion control, resulting in >0.1% efficiency gain with dramatically improved production yield. Novel contact design recovered R-sheet level of PERC monocrystalline cells that is claimed to enable higher R-sheet, boosting cell conversion efficiencies to >21.6%. A special version for wrap-around deposited and dual-side passivated AlOx for PERC front-side and N-PERT rear-side cells has been developed as well as single print, dual print and knuckle-free screen versions being available.


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